Vegetable seedlings are an important link and basic link in the development of vegetable production and vegetable industry. However, due to the facilities and management level, the traditional one-person decentralized nursery method is not suitable. Therefore, intensive grafting seedling technology has been produced.
Why choose intensive seedling technology?
- Advanced management technology is not easy to implement and other issues, it has been difficult to adapt to the needs of modern vegetable production and industrial development.
- Vegetable intensive seedling has the advantages of high resource utilization rate, high management technology level, short seedling period and good seedling quality.
It has become one of the key technologies for the promotion of vegetable industry development in Hebei Province, China in recent years.
Large-scale vegetable seedling enterprises have emerged in various cities, but the seedling technology in actual production is still not standard, and the technical level among different enterprises is uneven.
The solanaceous vegetables are the main types of vegetables in Hebei Province, and the amount of seedlings is large. Due to the problems of continuous cropping and soil-borne diseases and insect pests, grafting has become an important technical link in seedling raising.
Based on the research results of the research group and local experience, this paper introduces the facilities and equipment for intensive grafting and seedling cultivation of tomato and vegetable in the use of a solar greenhouse and multi-span greenhouse in Hebei Province, preparation before sowing, variety selection, sowing technology, seedling management, and grafting technology.
It also includes technical points such as commodity seedling standards and transportation.
Facilities and equipment of intensive seedling technology
It can be used in modern greenhouses, solar cooling systems with heating system and heating system. Spring and summer and autumn can also be carried out in greenhouses with sunshade plastics (structure: synthetic resin, plasticizer, stabilizer, colorant).
Nursery bed frame
The height of the bed frame is generally 0.8 to 1 m, and the width is set to 3 to 5 rows of standard seedling trays.
The rootstock seedlings are selected from 72-hole trays, and the scion can be used with 128-hole trays.
The hose can be used to install the fine-hole nozzle for watering, and it is best to use a walking or fixed automatic sprinkler.
The nursery should be equipped with facilities such as reservoirs, warehouses, matrix mixers, incubators, thermostatic seedlings, and conditional configurable automatic or semi-automatic precision seeders.
Preparation before sowing: Disinfection of facilities and equipment
We VanqLED provide the complete soilless system solutions.
Potassium permanganate + formaldehyde disinfection or sulfur fumigation can be used.
Potassium permanganate + formaldehyde disinfection method: 1.65 kg potassium permanganate, 1.65 kg formaldehyde, 8.4 kg boiling water per 667 m*m chambers. Add formaldehyde to boiling water, add potassium permanganate, produce a smoke reaction, ventilate after 48 hours of blocking, use after the odor is exhausted.
Sulfur fumigation method: uses sulfur powder 2~3kg per 667m2 plus divixile 0.25kg, mixes with 4kg of sawdust to ignite, and is ventilated after 48 hours of closed fumigation.
Soak the seedling tray with 40% formalin 100 times solution for 15-20 minutes, then cover with a layer of plastic film, suffocate for about one week, rinse with water and use.
Matrix preparation and disinfection
A special commodity substrate for seedlings can be selected. It can also be prepared by using high-quality peat, vermiculite, and perlite as matrix materials.
The ratio of peat, vermiculite, and perlite by volume ratio 3:1:1 preparation, adding 1-2 kg of ternary compound fertilizer with 15% nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content per cubic meter.
The substrate disinfection and pre-wetting are carried out simultaneously, adding 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder or 50% carbendazim wettable powder 0.2 kg per cubic meter of the substrate, adding water to make the substrate water content 50% to 60%.
That is, hand tight Hold the substrate, watermark without forming water droplets, stir evenly and cover with moisturizing film for use.
The special product for breeding seedlings has been directly pre-wetted with water before sterilization.
The substrate is filled with a seedling tray and smoothed. Place 4 to 5 well-packed trays vertically stacked together, and place both hands flat on the top tray to evenly press down so that the substrate in each hole has a seed hole of 0.5 to 1 cm depth.
Rootstocks Variety selection
The scion should be selected to meet the market demand, strong disease resistance, strong resistance, high yield, and good quality.
The rootstock should be strong in resistance to soil-borne diseases, strong in growth, strong in stress resistance, strong affinity and symbiotic relationship with scion grafting. Well, the special grafting rootstock has little effect on the quality of the scion.
The hydroponic plants cultivated by soilless culture vegetables using this soilless cultivation technique are favored by domestic and foreign flower consumers for their cleanliness, elegant style, strong ornamental, environmental protection and pollution-free.
For tomatoes, wild tomatoes or eggplants can be used as rootstocks;
For peppers, the rootstocks can be made from wild peppers or eggplants;
For eggplants, the rootstocks can be made from wild algae varieties such as Torumba, Aconitum, and Red Ganoderma.
How to determine the sowing time？
The specific seedling time is determined according to the production needs.
Tomato summer seedlings can be planted 20 to 30 days before planting; winter seedlings can be planted 40 to 50 days before planting.
Summer seedlings of pepper and eggplant can be sown 30 to 40 days before planting; winter seedlings can be sown 50 to 60 days before planting.
When grafting seedlings, the seeding period of the scions is 7 to 10 days earlier than the seeding period of the conventional seedlings.
The rootstocks with slow growth at the seedling stage such as Torumbam are 20 to 25 days earlier than the scions, and the other rootstocks are 10 to 15 days earlier than the scions.
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