In most countries in the world, the cultivation of cannabis at home is prohibited. However, there are some exception countries. In the Netherlands, Uruguay, the Czech Republic, Spain and some states in the United States, it is legal to grow up to 5-6 cannabis bushes at home for personal use. In these countries, any cannabis lover can become a grower, so how to cultivate high-quality cannabis at home? The following will give you a detailed explanation of the methods and techniques of cannabis cultivation.
Choose where to grow hemp: window sill or planting box
Of course, marijuana can grow on a window sill or in a lighted room, but the result of this situation is very small. The harvest in 2-3 months is not worth a few grams. In addition, for safety reasons, it is best not to place plants in the field of view, as uninvited guests will easily notice it. The supplementary lighting by the window will cause unnecessary doubts for passers-by, and the aroma of cones in the apartment will attract the attention of neighbors.
This is why most European growers prefer to use planting boxes-a special “cabinet” for growing hemp, thus creating a favorable microclimate. The environmental factors are easy to control, which has a positive impact on the life process of plants. It is completely enclosed, so no light penetrates the outside. A filter is also installed to eliminate odors. If such a structure were placed in a closet or other secluded place, no one would guess that marijuana was growing in the apartment.
If you do not have all these shortcomings, then it is recommended to choose the window sill, the natural light is the best nutrient.
Growth box for growing hemp
You can make a cannabis planting box yourself, or you can buy a ready-made one in a dedicated online store. The first thing you need to pay attention to is the size. There will be a small backlog in the future, and it is best to select designs for 3-4 factories. Its size should be 1x1x2 meters or larger. Small self-flowering plants need a free space of 30x40cm. If you must plant very low automatic flowers, you can reduce their height. It should also be remembered that installing the lights will require approximately 50-60 cm of vertical space in the planting box.
In the ready-made box, everything has been adapted to the beginning of planting, but in the ready-made box, you will need to pay attention to other things:
- Tightness. The growth box must be completely closed to prevent light from entering. If you use a ready-made structure (such as a cabinet), the use of rubber gaskets is the easiest way to eliminate the gap. If the packaging box is made from scratch, the walls of the packaging box should be equal and they should fit each other perfectly. Silicone can be used for additional sealing;
- Internal coating. The proper internal covering of the planting box should do two things: light reflection and insulation. If the apartment temperature is not lower than 20 degrees in winter, the second temperature can be ignored. To reflect light, you need to use special materials, the most ideal is polyester film type film, matte white water-based paint can also reflect light well, pentabromophenol and other similar materials are not suitable, but can be cool Used as a heater under the conditions.
- Fire safety. Since electrical appliances and water will be used in the seedling boxes, they must be properly protected from dangerous situations. To connect the lighting and ventilation, it is best to use a new cable, which will be equipped with a circuit breaker. All wires should be fully insulated and should be as far away from the irrigation area as possible;
- Ventilation. A hole must be made in the planting box for ventilation. It is located at the top of the structure. It is best to buy an off-the-shelf hood with a charcoal filter so that the holes can be clearly punched under its size. In addition, with its help, it will be easier to maintain the tightness of the box. It is also recommended to pay attention to the supply of fresh air. To this end, a hole was made in the bottom of the planting box.
How to grow hemp and lighting
Indoor hemp can be grown in soil or through hydroponics. For novice gardeners, the second choice will be very difficult, so it is best to choose the first one first. It is best to buy a ready-made soil substrate in a flower shop, mainly because it contains enough nutrients in the first few weeks of growth, and is loose and ventilated. Its pH must be between 5.5 and 6.5, which is one of the most suitable flowering soils in general stores. It is not recommended to use the land near the flower beds because there may be many harmful impurities in it.
Regarding lighting, for many years, the gold standard for cannabis cultivation has been HPS lamps with a capacity of 250-400 watts. One of them will be enough to plant 2-3 shrubs. As the number of planting boxes increases, you can always buy another one. The only disadvantage of HPS lamps is their strong heat transfer ability. Installing them in a poorly ventilated box can cause a significant increase in temperature. The growth may also be burned.
LED lamps have long been the back of gas discharge lamps, but they are still quite expensive. Special LED plant lights for plants perform very well, but it is quite difficult to find reliable suppliers at an affordable price. If the budget allows, they should be given priority, with an emphasis on 100-200 watts of power. They emit the spectrum that is most beneficial to plants, which has a positive effect on the growth and development of their plants.
Energy-saving bulbs are the best choice for budding growers with limited budgets. ESL is very suitable for small planting boxes, economical and cheap. They are of two types: 2700k and 6400k. For the best results, it is worth installing the two devices in equal proportions so that their total power is 150 to 300 watts or half a square meter per plant. First, the red spectrum is dominant, which is necessary for the growth of plants during the flowering period. Second, the blue spectrum is needed during the growing season.
After selecting the lamp, you should determine the lighting mode. Photoperiod cannabis has several luminous patterns, but the most common are 20/4 (light/dark) during the vegetable period and 12/12 during the flowering period. For cars, the best lighting is 18/6 (bright/dark) or 20/4. But this is not all possible patterns, so we suggest you read the article “Ignite Cannabis”.
The optimal distance from the top of the plant to the lamp is different for each type of lighting. DNaT and other gas discharge lamps must be 30-60 cm away from the factory, LED lights-10-50 cm away, ESL is actually very close -10 to 30 cm away.
Cannabis grows best at 23-28 degrees during the day, 18-23 at night, and 50-60% relative humidity. At the beginning of the vegetable, the humidity may even be slightly higher, but in order to make it mature, it is recommended to reduce it to 30-40% to avoid the appearance of mold. In order to prevent this and the strength of the branches and the better development of the root system, it is necessary to provide sufficient airflow for the plants. High-quality air supply and exhaust ventilation systems will help regulate humidity and temperature, and will constantly update the air in the seed box.
After creating all the necessary conditions, all that is left is to choose the right seeds and make the right nutrition plan so that the plant gets everything it needs. During the plant growth stage, hemp will actively consume nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the consumption of trace elements is small. Usually, there are enough of these in decent purchase soil for the first time. But after a few weeks, supplementary feeding may be required. Compound fertilizers with an NPK ratio of 5-4-3 or 6-5-4 are very suitable. When switching to the flowering state, the demand for phosphorus and potassium increases. Therefore, NPK 3-5-6 and calcium and magnesium fertilizers will be the best. In the final stage of maturation, flowering stimulants 0-9-10 or 1-5-6 contain virtually or no nitrogen at all. At the end of life, these plants can only drink water for a few weeks.
Useful tips and life skills from experienced growers
- To facilitate working in the planting box, all electronic equipment and wires should be located outside of it. A special compartment inside will be very useful, so no one will suspect that something is wrong.
- Reduce the moisture in the growth chamber a few weeks before harvest. This will stimulate the buds to release more resin;
- Turn off the lights completely 2 days before harvesting. Then, the buds will start to produce other THC crystals.
- Using pentachlorophenol as an inner lining can insulate the structure, but white frosted paint is more suitable for use as a reflector.
- Grazing should be stopped 2-3 weeks before harvest. It should be watered with clean water. This will remove all harmful substances in the cone cells;
- The final watering should be done one week before the buds are ready for harvest. This will reduce the internal moisture content and make drying and curing easier;
- In order to strengthen the stalks and increase productivity, the wind in the planting box must be simulated. A small computer radiator will help achieve this goal.
to sum up
Growing marijuana at home is very easy. In addition, it can be completed at the lowest cost. The main thing is to determine the location of the planting equipment and have selected a variety for them. It should be understood that the more investments made, the richer the harvest. Beginners should not be afraid of anything, everything is accompanied by experience!